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DIR Diving Series: The Woodville Karst Plain Project

The Woodville Karst Plain, a hidden treasure beneath the surface of Florida, is a realm of subterranean caves, rivers, and sinkholes that beckons adventurers and scientists alike. This unique geological wonderland, located in the Gulf Coastal Lowland physiographic region, is an enigmatic expanse that has captivated explorers, archaeologists, and cave divers for decades.

In this first instalment of our D.I.R. diving series, we delve into the depths of the Woodville Karst Plain, a place where nature's processes have carved intricate landscapes beneath the Earth's surface. The project's remarkable history and ongoing exploration efforts reveal the secrets hidden within this underground world.

Geology and Geography of the Woodville Karst Plain

The Woodville Karst Plain extends from the southern edge of Tallahassee, Florida, to the Gulf of Mexico. Its northern border, known as the Cody Scarp, dates back to a Pleistocene interglacial period about 100,000 years ago when the Gulf's waters reached near the present Leon County Fairgrounds. To the west, the Apalachicola Lowlands mark the boundary, while the Wacissa River in Jefferson County defines its eastern extent.

The Woodville Karst Plain's defining geological feature is its porous, sandy terrain, capped by less than 20 feet of quartz sand. The permeable sands facilitate the rapid movement of acidic water through underlying soluble carbonates, giving rise to a network of dolines, springs, and karst windows. These geological formations are a testament to the ongoing process of corrosion that continues to shape this underground world.

Hundreds of sinkholes punctuate the landscape, ranging from dry depressions to clear groundwater-filled cavities. Distinguishing between groundwater and surface water in these sinks is as simple as measuring the water's temperature. Groundwater remains a constant 69 degrees Fahrenheit year-round, while surface water temperatures fluctuate with the seasons.

The Woodville Karst Plain boasts 26% of Florida's 27 first-magnitude springs, including renowned ones like Wakulla Spring, St. Marks Spring, and Wacissa Springs. These springs collectively discharge a staggering 64.6 million gallons of water daily.

Exploring the Subterranean Labyrinth

Cave divers have played a pivotal role in unveiling the mysteries of the Woodville Karst Plain. Their explorations have led to the discovery of over 22 miles of known conduits beneath the surface, with the Leon Sinks Cave system, encompassing more than 11 miles of mapped phreatic passages, taking the lead. This system is believed to contribute significantly to the flow at Wakulla Springs.

The relentless exploration by cave divers has expanded our understanding of this labyrinthine environment. Staging air and gas mixtures within the caves, divers have reached extraordinary depths, further unravelling the mysteries of the underwater caves. The U.S. Deep Caving Team's 1987 survey of over two miles of conduits in Wakulla Springs has brought us closer to comprehending the intricate web of these underwater passageways.

The Woodville Karst Plain Project (WKPP)

In 1991, Parker Turner founded the Woodville Karst Plain Project (WKPP) with the goal of exploring the subaquatic caves and karst openings systematically. Tragically, Turner lost his life in a diving accident, but his legacy lives on through the Parker A. Turner Memorial Scholarship Fund established by Florida State University.

Today, the WKPP, sponsored by the National Speleological Society, plays a pivotal role in providing data on groundwater and hydrogeology and supports both private and government research efforts. Recently, WKPP divers have extended the exploration of Tunnel A at Wakulla Springs, adding several hundred feet of surveyed passage to the system, moving ever closer to connecting it to Big Dismal Sink.

A Sanctuary of Geological and Biological Wonders

The Woodville Karst Plain is not only a geological wonder but also a haven for unique species and ecological niches. The caves here are home to globally imperilled blind crayfish and other rare troglobites. Rare plants, such as the Venus-hair fern, thrive along the rims and walls of dolines.

Moreover, the karst region holds untapped potential for scientific research. Little archaeological work has been done in the area, and the silty cavern floors may hold invaluable insights into early human settlement and subsistence. In terms of vertebrate palaeontology, the Woodville Karst Plain is a treasure trove, preserving Pleistocene megafauna and relics from the past.

Challenges and Conservation

While progress has been made in conserving the Woodville Karst Plain, with regulations aimed at protecting the fragile ecosystem, the water quality at Wakulla Springs still faces threats from upstream development. The springs' clarity appears to be diminishing over time, highlighting the need for continued conservation efforts.

With all its mysteries and marvels, the Woodville Karst Plain remains a hotspot for scientific discovery and adventure. Researchers and explorers from diverse disciplines continue to work together to unravel the secrets hidden beneath the Earth's surface. As we continue our D.I.R. diving series, we'll explore the techniques and methodologies used by divers and scientists in this remarkable endeavour, shedding light on the "Doing It Right" approach in scuba diving. Join us in our ongoing journey to uncover the mysteries of the Woodville Karst Plain Project.


As we journey into the heart of the Woodville Karst Plain and continue to explore the underground wonders of this geological marvel, it's essential to understand the vital role that the Woodville Karst Plain Project (WKPP) plays in advancing the field of cave diving and exploration. The WKPP has been instrumental in the development of cave diving techniques, team diving protocols, and the DIR method of scuba diving.

DIR, short for "Doing It Right," represents a holistic approach to scuba diving, emphasizing fundamental skills, teamwork, environmental awareness, and the use of highly optimized and streamlined equipment configurations. According to DIR proponents, this approach enhances safety by standardizing equipment and procedures for preventing and managing emergencies, including critical situations like out-of-air emergencies.

The WKPP's dedication to these principles has not only contributed to the safety of divers but also to the growth and advancement of underwater exploration. In the next instalment of our series, we will delve deeper into the significance of the DIR method and how it has revolutionized the world of cave diving. We'll also explore innovative technology, such as the Halcyon PVR-BASC and RB80 rebreathers, which have played a pivotal role in pushing the boundaries of underwater exploration.


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